Existing literature on digital technology at the zoo.
If you are aware of literature not represented here, please contact the list maintainer, Sarah Webber

Digital Technology and the Zoo Visit

Marcus Carter, Sarah Webber, and Sally Sherwen. 2015. Naturalism and ACI: Augmenting Zoo Enclosures with Digital Technology. Proceedings of the The Second International Congress on Animal Computer Interaction, ACM. (In Press). Retrieved Nov 1, 2015 from

Andrea W. Clay, Bonnie M. Perdue, Diann E. Gaalema, Francine L. Dolins, and Mollie A. Bloomsmith. 2011. The use of technology to enhance zoological parks. Zoo Biology 30, 5: 487–497.

Sean Coleman. 2012. Can iPads Enhance Environmental Education? IZE Journal 48: 7–9. Retrieved May 14, 2015 from

Johannes Karlsson, Shafiq ur Réhman, and Haibo Li. 2010. Augmented Reality to Enhance Visitors Experience in a Digital Zoo. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia, ACM, 7:1–7:4.

Nicholas Kelling and Angela Kelling. 2014. Zooar: Zoo Based Augmented Reality Signage. Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, 1099–1103.

Debra Kutska. 2009. Variation in visitor perceptions of a polar bear enclosure based on the presence of natural vs. un-natural enrichment items. Zoo Biology 28, 4: 292–306.

Jerry F. Luebke and Jennifer Matiasek. 2013. An exploratory study of zoo visitors’ exhibit experiences and reactions. Zoo Biology 32, 4: 407–416.

Kenton O’Hara, Tim Kindberg, Maxine Glancy, et al. 2007. Collecting and Sharing Location-based Content on Mobile Phones in a Zoo Visitor Experience. Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16, 1-2: 11–44.

Yutaro Ohashi, Hideaki Ogawa, and Makoto Arisawa. 2008. Making New Learning Environment in Zoo by Adopting Mobile Devices. Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services, ACM, 489–490.

Bonnie M. Perdue, Tara S. Stoinski, and Terry L. Maple. 2012. Using Technology to Educate Zoo Visitors About Conservation. Visitor Studies 15, 1: 16–27.

Judy Perry, Eric Klopfer, Marleigh Norton, Dan Sutch, Richard Sandford, and Keri Facer. 2008. AR gone wild: two approaches to using augmented reality learning games in Zoos. Proceedings of the 8th international conference for the learning sciences, International Society of the Learning Sciences, 322–329. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from

Christoph Stahl. 2007. The roaring navigator: a group guide for the zoo with shared auditory landmark display. Proceedings of the 9th international conference on Human computer interaction with mobile devices and services, ACM, 383–386. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from

Mariko Suzuki, Itsuo Hatono, Tetsuo Ogino, et al. 2009. LEGS system in a zoo: use of mobile phones to enhance observation of animals. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children, ACM, 222–225. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from

Digital Enrichment for Zoo Animals

Helen Boostrom. 2013. Problem-solving with orangutans (Pongo Pygmaeus and Pongo Abelii) and chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes): Using the iPad to provide novel enrichment opportunities. Retrieved July 1, 2015 from

Fay E. Clark and Lauren J. Smith. 2013. Effect of a Cognitive Challenge Device Containing Food and Non‐Food Rewards on Chimpanzee Well-Being. American Journal of Primatology, 75: 807–816.

Ella Davies and Anna-Louise Taylor. 2012. Ape versus machine. BBC. Retrieved March 24, 2015 from

Karin Fahlquist, Johannes Karlsson, Haibo Li, et al. 2010. Human animal machine interaction: Animal behavior awareness and digital experience. Proceedings of the international conference on Multimedia, ACM, 1269–1274. Retrieved March 20, 2015 from

Fiona French and Clara Mancini. 2014. Designing smart toys for the cognitive enrichment of elephants. Proceedings of the First Symposium on Intelligent Systems and Animal Welfare, AISB.

Fiona French, Clara Mancini, and Helen Sharp. 2015. Designing Interactive Toys for Elephants. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, ACM, 523–528.

Terry L. Maple and Bonnie M. Perdue. 2013. Environmental Enrichment. In Zoo Animal Welfare. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 95–117. Retrieved March 31, 2015 from

Bonnie M Perdue, Andrea W Clay, Diann E Gaalema, Terry L Maple, and Tara S Stoinski. 2012. Technology at the zoo: the influence of a touchscreen computer on orangutans and zoo visitors. Zoo Biology 31, 1: 27–39.

Julian Smith. 2011. Apps for apes: Orang-utans want iPads for Christmas. New Scientist 212: 69–71.

D. A. Washburn. 2015. The four Cs of psychological wellbeing: Lessons from three decades of computer-based environmental enrichment. Animal Behavior and Cognition 2, 3: 218–232. Retrieved September 28, 2015 from

Jamie Whitehouse. 2013. The Impact of Cognitive Testing on the Welfare of Group Housed Primates. 8, 11.

Hanna Wirman. 2013. Orangutan play on and beyond a touchscreen. Proceedings of the 19th International Symposium on Electronic Art, ISEA.